2022考研英语翻译题答题技巧:并列平行结构

2021年04月25日来源: 运营部-林老师

考研英语中翻译题是考生的一大痛点,也是考试的一大难点,我们考生不仅要掌握单词的词性,还要能精 准的翻译出整个句子的意思。长句、句式、句子结构都是要考生在平时的复习中多加勤练,多加锻炼的题目。下面,湖南文都考研小编就给大家分享2021考研英语翻译题答题技巧:并列平行结构。

2022考研英语翻译题答题技巧:并列平行结构

英语中经常使用并列连词,例如 and, but, so, yet, for, nor, or, not only… but also, either… or或 neither… nor等等,这就是所谓的并列结构。同等成分可以是两个或几个动词的宾语,两个或几个名词的定语,两个或两个介词短语等等。若并列连词用两个或几个单句连在一起,则构成一个并列句,采用并列结构可使句子简练、紧凑,避免重复。

1. But the individualist approach, by attacking gender roles, denying the significance of physiological difference, and condemning existing familial institutions as hopelessly patriarchal, has often simply treated as irrelevant the family roles important to many women.

解析:句子中由 by引导的三个平行平行结构表示理由。Treatedas…结构使用倒装结构,因为 the family roles后面有修饰成分,所以把它放在后面。

由于个人主义方法攻击了性别角色,否定了生理差异的重要性,攻击了现存的家庭制度是不可救药的父权制,因而将对许多女性来说很重要的家庭角色视为理所当然。

2. There is no complete inventory of positions or people in federal service at this level. The lack may be explained by separate agency statutes and personnel systems, diffusion among so many special services, and the absence of any central point (short of President himself) with jurisdiction over all upper-level personnel of the government.

解析:介词 by后面是 separate… personnel systems, diffusion… special services和 the absence of… the government三个并列成分。表明为什么没有详细记录。句子里有些词需要翻译。

翻译:这一级别的联邦官员和职位并没有完整记录。关于这一点(缺乏详细记录)的解释可能是,各个部门的规章和人事制度不同,有太多分布在特别部门的特别事务,而且缺乏一个中央机构(除总统本人外)来管理所有高级政府官员。

3. He refuses to consider sufficiently the wants of the customer, who must buy, not the thing he desires but the thing the English gentleman wants to sell.

动词 consider后面的宾语是 the wants of the customer。不合格的定语从句 who must buy…修饰 the customer,不合格的 the thing… but thing…是并列成分。

4. The standardized educational or psychological tests that are widely used to aid in selecting, classifying, assigning, or promoting students, employees, and military personnel have been the target of recent attacks in books, magazines, the daily press, and even in Congress.

解析:这个句子, to aid in后面有四个并列动名词,而四个并列动名词后面有三个并列动名词。

翻译:被广泛用于对学生、职员和军人的挑选、分类、分配任务或晋升的教育或心理测试的标准化测试,最近遭到了书报杂志,甚至是国会的攻击。

5. The lack of insistence on personal honor, the surface informality, the disparaging responses to compliments, and willingness to admit mistakes are part of the egalitarian tradition, as are the Americans’ pride in what they have been able to achieve and their criticism of things that fall short of perfection.

解析:该句的主句由四个并列名词短语组成,分别是: The lack of insistence…, the surface informality, the disparaging responses…和 willingness do admitmistakes。同样值得注意的是, as引导的比较状语从句使用倒装顺序。这样可以保持句子的平衡。

翻译:美国人一方面为自己所取得的成就而骄傲,一方面对尚未达到完美的事物进行批判,这是他们平等主义传统的一部分;同样,他们不固执于面子,不拘泥于表面,对别人的赞美采取自我贬低的态度,愿意承认错误,也是他们平等主义传统的一部分。

6. Green, hilly, with abundant trees, it was a beautiful country, the Virginia-Kentucky border territory——or would have been, except for the mines.

解析:与 it was a beautiful country并列的句子(it) would have been是虚拟语气, a beautiful country被忽略。green, hilly, with abundant trees修饰 country beautiful country,把它放在主语句前面以强调它。

7. That is why women remain children their whole life long: never seeing anything but what is quite close to them, clinging to the present moment, taking appearance for reality, and preferring trifles to matters of the first importance.

该句的现在分词组成了一种并列结构,即做状语。在前一句中添加一个表语从句。

翻译:这就是为什么女人一辈子都不成熟:从来不只看到眼前的事物,也只看到眼前的瞬间,都把表面当作本质,都倾心于小事而忽略了根本。

8. But since the consequences of poverty are related to powerlessness, not to the absolute supply of money available to the poor, and since the amount of power purchasable with a given supply of money decreases as a society acquires a larger supply of goods and services, the solution of raising the incomes of the poor is likely, unless accompanied by other measures, to be ineffective in a wealthy society.

解析:这个句子有两个并列的原因状语子,由 and连接,它们都是由 since引导, available to the poor修饰 money, purchasable with a given supply of money修饰 the amount of power。从句 unless accompanied by other measures将 is likely与 to be ineffective in wealthy society分开。

翻译:但是,既然贫穷与穷人可以获得的货币的绝对供应无关,而是由没有权力的人造成的,而且既然用一定量的货币可以购买的权力随着一个社会获得的货物和服务的数量的增加而下降,除非同时采取其他措施,否则提高穷人收入的解决方案很可能无法在富裕社会中发挥作用。

9. It is the same old story of not being grateful for what we have until we lose it, of not being conscious of health until we are ill.

解析: oldstory是句子的表语,之后用两个介词短语作定语。这两个句子结构相同,在连词 until后都有状语从句。译文也应同时用两个平行句来翻译。

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